There are distinct differences between CNC milling vs lathe functionality. Depending upon the desired results and the workpiece, the difference between the two machines is quite evident.
For those who would like clarification, a CNC Mill uses a table that holds the workpiece while moving it around a stationary tool cutting head. A CNC Lathe spins the workpiece as it removes material.
Lathes and Mills can be either horizontal or vertical with respect to the cutting surface orientation. However, the differences can go much further and become more detailed as technology is applied to each type of CNC machine.
CNC Mill 101
Computer Numeric Control (CNC) has been applied to many shop machines, but with no greater results than with the Milling machine. Back in the day, operating a Milling machine was pretty straightforward. Mills could remove material in three different directions using a variety of cutting tools. The problem was that it took time to change tools and maintain the machine while it was in use. This slowed production at a time when speed was a critical concern.
As production floors had more and more orders to fill, milling machines became a bottleneck. Enter the application of CNC technology to the humble Mill and you’ve got a wonder of science and technology. Not only can a Milling machine function more accurately and rapidly than before, but it could produce more finished workpieces without failures or errors. Beginning with the 3-axis CNC machines of the 1970s we’ve seen the technology grow to CNC Mills that can operate on 5 and 6-axis.
CNC Lathe 101
Just like the Milling machine, the ever-present shop Lathe had austere beginnings. Lathes have been a tool used by humans since before the Pyramids. Turning a workpiece and shaping it with a sharp tool wasn’t exactly rocket science, but automating that tool to turn the workpiece at precise speeds while simultaneously removing material to within nanometers was magic.
With the addition of the electric motor, the standard shop lathe stood the test of time and evolved with reluctance. When Computer Numeric Control got to the party, the whole scene changed dramatically. Horizontal and vertical lathes saw vast improvements in productivity, accuracy, and quality of output. Baseball bats and stairway balusters gave way to intricately drilled, shaved, and engraved wizardry.
CNC milling vs lathes: Advancing faster than ever!
The differences and commonalities between CNC Mills and Lathes can become confusing. The capabilities of each have expanded so far that the overlap in protocols is significant. On the modern shop or production floor, a CNC Mill and a CNC Lathe are practically interchangeable due to advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI), computer applications, tool technology, and machine functionality.
Today’s CNC Mill and CNC Lathe operate so quickly it’s almost impossible to observe each individual action – far cry from the days of one-man-one-machine. Most shop floors operating CNC equipment have one operator responsible for overseeing several machines. Improvements continue to increase the capabilities of both types of CNC machines making CNC machine operators more valuable than ever.